Cost traps in business models 4.0
The traditional business models of industrial enterprises are endangered. Simultaneously, modern data-based technologies enable the development of complex service solutions that can be marketed as innovative business models. By analogy to the application options that are known as Industry 4.0 in Europe we will refer to them as business models 4.0. However, in many cases, the introduction of business models 4.0 is not as successful as expected due to cost overruns. In this paper we have identified nine major cost traps that must be observed for target definition, marketing and implementation. In addition, we highlight measures to help avoid these cost traps.