This is a photo of Prof. Laura Guillén, ESMT, teaching.

Laura Guillén

ESMT Working Paper

When opposites hurt: Similarity in getting ahead in leader-follower dyads as a predictor of job performance evaluations

ESMT Working Paper No. 11-12 (R1)
Laura Guillén, Natalia Karelaia (2012)
Abstract:
Subject(s): Human resources management/organizational behavior
Keyword(s): getting-ahead similarity, leader-follower dyads, job performance evaluation, self-enhancement, 360-degree instruments

Status-seeking behaviors are linked to executive career progression, but do leaders appreciate being surrounded by followers eager to move up in the organizational hierarchy? Building on the self-enhancement theory, we propose that leaders with high self-assessed getting-ahead behaviors give better performance evaluations to subordinates who also have willingness to get ahead behaviors. In contrast, leaders with low self-assessed getting-ahead behaviors are quite reserved about the performance of subordinates high in the getting-ahead dimension. We also propose that overall, ambitious leaders evaluate more positively their followers’ performance than leaders with more modest desire to get ahead. We suggest that this effect is magnified when the status differential between the leader and the follower is reduced due to differences in age or hierarchical level (i.e., a younger leader or too few hierarchical levels between the leader and the subordinate). The results obtained by using polynomial regression and response surface techniques to analyze a sample of 138 leader-follower dyads supported our hypotheses showing a supervisor’s contextual performance ratings skew rooted in leaders’ desire to get ahead. We conclude by deriving the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

Pages 35
Publication Nr. 11-12 (R1)
ISSN 1866–3494 (Print)

Working Paper

Emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness: The mediating influence of collaborative behaviors

INSEAD Working Paper No. 2011/23/IGLC
Laura Guillén, Elizabeth Florent-Treacy (2011)
Abstract:
Subject(s): Human resources management/organizational behavior
Keyword(s): professional transitions, learning methods, leadership development

Leadership effectiveness can be divided into two broad categories that include 'getting along' behaviours (teamwork and empowerment of others) and/or 'getting ahead' behaviours (visioning, energizing, designing and rewarding). This study examines the effects of emotional intelligence on getting along and getting ahead leadership behaviours at work. Results from an analysis of a dataset derived from a 360° leadership behaviour survey completed by 929 managers indicated that emotional intelligence had a significant effect on collaborative behaviours at work, and that collaborative behaviours directly affected the inspirational side of leadership performance. Further, getting along behaviours were found to fully mediate the relationship between emotional intelligence and getting ahead behaviours. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

A pdf file of this working paper may be available at INSEAD.

Pages 29
Publication Nr. 2011/23/IGLC

Working Paper

Making sense of managerial competencies: A motive-based approach

INSEAD Working Paper No. 2009/07/OB
Published in: Human Performance 26 (1): 66–92 entitled: Competencies, personality traits, and job performance outcomes of middle managers: A motive-based approach.
Laura Guillén Ramo, Willem E. Saris (2009)
Abstract:
Subject(s): Human resources management/organizational behavior
Keyword(s): competencies, motives, emotional intelligence

In this study, we analyse empirically a competency model. We assert that the emotional intelligence (EI) model may not be the best way of grouping managerial competencies and we propose a new way of embedding competencies within a motivational domain. We build on McClelland's concept of motives to propose a new way of grouping competencies. This study is base on data from employees of three medium-sized organization (n=223) who complete a competency measure based on the proposal by Boyatzis and Goleman. We analyse empirically which of the factor structures (EI or motive-based) best fits the data. Our results confirm the appropriateness of grouping competencies into three clusters which have parallels with the three social motives of affiliation, power and achievement. Our study seeks to overcome the paucity of empirical research relevant to competency models and to expand the competency literature towards a theory of work motivation. Implications are drawn and future research directions are suggested.

A pdf file of this working paper may be available at INSEAD.

Pages 31
Publication Nr. 2009/07/OB

Working Paper

Organizational culture, leadership, change, and stress

INSEAD Working Paper No. 2009/10/EFE/IGLC
Published in International handbook of work and health psychology, 3rd ed., ed. Cary L. Cooper, James Campbell Quick, Marc J. Schabracq, 411–426. London: Wiley.
Abstract:
Subject(s): Human resources management/organizational behavior
Keyword(s): leadership, organization change, stress, oganizational culture

How do organizations become and remain great places to work? That is the question that primarily motivates this chapter. The authors claim that is precisely the adaptive capability of self-renewal which characterizes great places to work. But changing mindsets is never easy and the need for adaptation usually induces a high degree of stress, both at individual and organizational levels. Even if a simple recipe for facing continuous adaptation does not exist, learning how to manage organizational change processes effectively may serve as a platform to motivate people to create better organizations and to keep individual and organizational stress at acceptable levels. This chapter discusses the internal and external pressures that may trigger organizational changes. Then, it explores the four stages of the organizational change process - creating a shared mindset, changing behaviour, institutionalizing change, and transforming the organization. Implications and challenges for practitioners are drawn.

A pdf file of this working paper may be available at INSEAD.

Pages 25
Publication Nr. 2009/10/EFE/IGLC

Working Paper

Authentic (mis)fit: The risk and rewards of being authentic at work

Laura Guillén, Natalia Karelaia, Hannes Leroy
Abstract:
Subject(s): Human resources management/organizational behavior
Keyword(s): Authenticity, perceived person-organization fit, prosocial behavior, interpersonal conflicts, job performance

We suggest that the risks and rewards of being authentic in the workplace cannot be fully understood without considering how an individual’s authentic self fits with others. Integrating theory and research on authenticity with literature on person-organization fit, we specifically propose that being authentic only results in positive outcomes when one’s authenticity does not stand at odds with the organizational context (i.e., high perceived person-organization fit). When individuals feel that their authentic self fits the organizational context, being authentic boosts collaborative attitudes toward others, which in turn enhances performance. In contrast, when authentic individuals perceive their values to be misaligned with those of the organization, their authenticity can motivate less positive interpersonal behaviors, which ultimately undermine their job performance. In an experiment (Study 1), individuals who felt more authentic were more generous toward their peers – but only when they reported a high fit with other organizational members. In a field study (Study 2), when perceived fit with the organization was high, authenticity increased prosocial behavior and reduced interpersonal conflicts, which in turn boosted individual performance. When perceived fit was low, authenticity had negative consequences such as less prosocial behavior, more interpersonal conflicts, and ultimately lower job performance. Our findings show that authenticity at work does not invariably help individuals to succeed and may become a liability when individual authenticity clashes with the organizational context.


Working Paper

Leadership and the dark triad: How self-uncertainty helps malevolent leaders rise to the top

Laura Guillén, Philippe Jacquart, Michael Hogg
Abstract:
Subject(s): Human resources management/organizational behavior
Keyword(s): Dark triad, self-uncertainty, motivation to lead, hostile attributions, leadership support, experiment

We propose a two-fold explanation, based on self-related uncertainty, to explain why individuals with antisocial personalities may be more likely to attain leadership positions in the upper echelons of organizations. First, in three experiments (Ns = 141, 238 and 602), we showed that individuals who score high on the dark triad of personality (i.e. psychopathy, narcissism and Machiavellianism) react to the distress associated with self-related uncertainty through enhanced hostility against others, which in turn increases their motivation to lead. Second, in two correlational studies (Ns = 58 and 87) and one experiment (N = 180), we found that hypothetical and actual leaders with psychopathic traits are more likely to be supported by individuals who feel uncertain about their own sense of self. Together, our results provide evidence of the significant role played by self-uncertainty in explaining why and when dark triad individuals are able to attain leadership positions. We discuss implications for theory and research on the dark triad, leadership, and identity, and their relevance for understanding both organizational and public leadership.


Working Paper

Understanding visionary leadership perceptions: A leader identity perspective

Laura Guillén, Margarita Mayo, Daniel S. Whitman, Konstantin Korotov
Abstract:
Subject(s): Human resources management/organizational behavior
Keyword(s): Visionary leadership perceptions, affective-identity motivation to lead, regulatory focus, self-interested motives to lead, identity

Although the consequences of visionary-related aspects of leadership for followers are well researched, much less is known about the underpinnings that explain how and why some leaders are perceived as visionary while others are not. Drawing from the leadership identity and self-regulation literatures, we propose that leaders’ regulatory foci influence the extent to which others perceive them as visionary via affective-identity motivation to lead. We delineate boundary conditions to our model and propose that when leaders have self-interested motives to lead, the visionary glow generated by their affective-identity motivation to lead is likely to wane. In a multi-source field study of 153 focal managers with people responsibilities and 1,451 raters (e.g., supervisors, peers, followers, and internal clients), we show that managers with high-promotion, low-prevention regulatory foci had a stronger affective-identity motivation to lead, and, in turn, were perceived by others as visionary leaders. Furthermore, the association between affective-identity motivation to lead and visionary leadership perceptions was only realized when the manager had low self-interested motives to lead. We discuss the theoretical and practical implication of these findings.


Working Paper

Why being authentic at work does not always lead to positive social consequences: A social identity approach

Laura Guillén, Natalia Karelaia, Hannes Luc Leroy
Abstract:
Subject(s): Human resources management/organizational behavior
Keyword(s): Authenticity, prosocial orientation, interpersonal liking, job performance evaluations

Individuals feel authentic when they believe they act consistently with their values. However, others do not necessarily see such individuals as authentic. We explore the gap between felt and perceived authenticity and suggest that individuals’ prosocial orientation determines, jointly with felt authenticity, the extent to which they are perceived as authentic. We hypothesize that to be seen as authentic, one cannot deviate from universally accepted self-transcendence values by showing little prosocial concern. When that happens, felt authenticity paradoxically reduces the extent to which the individual is perceived as authentic because it signals the deviance from prosocial values is genuine. Consequently, the individual is liked less and, ultimately, seen as less effective at work. The data collected at a large private organization showed that, as we predicted, felt authenticity was detrimental for individuals with low prosocial orientation such that they were perceived as less authentic, liked less, and received lower job performance evaluations. However, felt authenticity did not affect social outcomes for individuals with high prosocial orientation. Our results suggest that universal self-transcendence values play a fundamental role in determining authenticity perceptions. When one’s behavior is inconsistent with universally accepted values, individual authenticity becomes a social liability.