This is a photo of Prof. Francis Bidault, ESMT, teaching.

Francis Bidault

Journal Article
Forthcoming

The dynamics of relational quality in co-development alliances

International Journal of Technology Management
Francis Bidault, Alessio Castello
Abstract:
Subject(s): Strategy and general management, Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s): Co-development, R&D partnerships, cooperative R&D, joint R&D, technology alliances, joint innovation, co-innovation, relational quality, confidence in partners, trust and control

Journal Article

Willingness to rely on trust in global business collaborations: Context vs. demography

Journal of World Business 53 (3): 373–391
Francis Bidault, José de la Torre, Stelios H. Zanakis, Peter Smith Ring (2018)
Abstract:
Subject(s): Strategy and general management
Keyword(s): Inter-organizational trust; Propensity to trust; Willingness to rely on trust; Trustworthiness; Contextual factors in trust; Demographic factors in trust; Contractual safeguards; International joint ventures (IJVs) and collaborations
JEL Code(s): M16

We examine how 712 executives from several countries, industries and backgrounds are willing to rely on trust (WTRT) when entering a collaborative venture where both partners are at risk. Presented with a specific partnership opportunity they were asked about the level of safeguards required to enter into an agreement. We test for the impact of contextual and demographic conditions and confirmed differences in WTRT between nationalities, but find that several contextual variables mediate this impact. Different nationalities treat three dimensions of trust (integrity, reliability, and benevolence) differently as they are shown to be time dependent. We conclude that context is as important as demography in determining an executive’s WTRT.

With permission of Elsevier

Volume 53
Issue 3
Pages 373–391

Journal Article

The distribution of partnerships benefits: Evidence from co-authorships in economics journals

Research Policy 43 (6): 1002–1013
Abstract:
Subject(s): Strategy and general management, Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s): Co-authorship, academic partnership, joint research, joint publication, asymmetric authorship, benefits sharing

Partnerships can be found in many areas of social and economic life. These arrangements have become particularly common in research and development activities where organizations increasingly look for partners to complement their own technological capabilities with a view to create innovative products and processes. R&D partnerships, however, are fraught with challenges because the conditions for creativity through cooperation are still not fully understood. Academic partnerships are also very common and offer a fertile ground for investigation. Academic cooperation takes many different forms and results in a wide range of outcomes (Laband and Tollison, 2000). One of the most visible outcomes is co-authored publications (Melin and Persson, 1996). Nowadays, there is extensive data available about both the context of these partnerships as well as the quality of their outcome. This paper explores the determinants of the gain for authors who cooperate through co-authorship in the publication of academic articles. We distinguish between short-term benefits (i.e. the increase in citations of the co-authored article relative to the authors’ previous publications) and the long-term ones (i.e. the increase in citations of articles subsequent to the co-authored piece). We find evidence that these benefits have different determinants for co-authors depending on their past experience. While co-authorship generally seems to benefit more the junior (younger and with a lower academic reputation) author, the senior partner can reduce the gap with a strong personal track record and co-authoring experience.

With permission of Elsevier

Volume 43
Issue 6
Pages 1002–1013

Journal Article

A framework for monitoring relational quality in B2B technology partnerships

Business Management Review 1 (1): 34–43
Francis Bidault, Manfred Lüth, Olaf Plötner (2011)
Abstract:
Subject(s): Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s): technology partnerships, trust, relational quality
Volume 1
Issue 1
Pages 34–43

Journal Article

Why too much trust is death to innovation

Sloan Management Review 51 (4): 33–38
Francis Bidault, Alessio Castello (2010)
Abstract:
Subject(s): Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s): trust, creativity, innovation, partnership
Volume 51
Issue 4
Pages 33–38

Journal Article

Trust and creativity: Understanding the role of trust in creativity-oriented joint developments

R&D Management 39 (3): 259–270
Francis Bidault, Alessio Castello (2009)
Abstract:
Subject(s): Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s): joint innovation, co-development partnerships, trust, creativity, innovativeness
JEL Code(s): M10, M16

In this article we report on the design, prototyping and results of a research effort aimed at identifying whether and how trust affects the innovativeness of a partnership between two players. The methodology combined an experiment and two questionnaires. The research aimed to increase our understanding of trust and its impact on the innovative outcome of cooperation and to derive some guidance for economic actors, namely R&D managers and executives who intend to build innovation-oriented relationships with their business partners. Specifically, we investigated the effect of trust on partners' creativity and willingness to invest financially in a joint development. Our results show that more trustful partners invest higher amounts in the alliance, while there seems to be an optimum amount of mutual trust between partners who maximize their joint creativity and innovativeness; if the level of mutual trust is below or above this threshold, their joint creativity seems to increase less or even to decrease. Our findings suggest that joint development projects should always include explicit trust development activities at the beginning of the project, and that the amount of trust in the joint team should be monitored to avoid the negative consequences of excessive trust.

© 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd

Volume 39
Issue 3
Pages 259–270

Journal Article

What makes executives trust each other? The determinants of the willingness to rely on trust in business partnerships

Creativity and Innovation Management 16 (3): 317–329
Francis Bidault, José de la Torre, Casimir de Rham, Michelle Sisto (2007)
Abstract:
Subject(s): Strategy and general management
Keyword(s): trust, willingness to rely on trust, partnership

This paper is concerned with understanding and identifying factors that affect the willingness of business executives to rely on trust as a governance mechanism in the context of partnerships. An instrument was designed (a short business case study followed by a questionnaire) to collect data on how different executives react to the objective conditions of a business deal. Through the questionnaire, individual willingness to rely on trust, individual reaction to traditional types of trust, and sensitivity to other situations that evolve during the deal were measured. It is shown that willingness to rely on trust varies amongst executives and is not fully determined by the conditions of a deal. Furthermore, consistent with a psycho-sociological approach to trust, it is also shown that demographic factors are related to propensity to rely on trust, and that across nationalities, the sensitivity to factors affecting trust such as partner interaction and external information differ.

© 2007 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd

Volume 16
Issue 3
Pages 317–329

Journal Article

Sitting pretty: Managing customer-driven innovation at Faurecia car seating

International Journal of Technology and Innovation Management Education 2: 1–20
Abstract:
Subject(s): Product and operations management
Keyword(s): manufacturing strategy, supply chain, new product development, innovation
Volume 2
Pages 1–20

Journal Article

Global licensing strategies and technology pricing

International Journal of Technology Management 27 (2–3): 295–305
Abstract:
Subject(s): Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s): global licensing, licensing strategies, technology pricing
Volume 27
Issue 2–3
Pages 295–305

Journal Article

Stability and complexity of inter-firm co-operation: The case of multi-points alliances

European Management Journal 19 (6): 619–628
Francis Bidault, Melchior Salgado (2001)
Abstract:
Subject(s): Strategy and general management
Keyword(s): alliances, multi-point co-operation, joint ventures, inter-firm co-operation, co-operation dynamics

The authors examine alliances involving inter-firm co-operation which they term 'multi-point alliances'. These are first defined and considered in varying degrees of complexity. A typology of multi-point alliances is produced, and interviews conducted with French and Spanish corporations followed by a two-stage questionnaire survey of France's largest corporations. The dynamics of multi-point co-operation were then examined. The results include support for the authors' research hypothesis that both business complexity (scope) and organizational complexity (structure) impact the evolution of co-operation: the higher the complexity, the more likely the co-operative arrangement will diverge from its initial objective.

With permission of Elsevier

Volume 19
Issue 6
Pages 619–628

Journal Article

The drivers of cooperation between buyers and suppliers for product innovation

Research Policy 26 (7–8): 719–732
Francis Bidault, Charles Despres, Christina Butler (1998)
Abstract:
Subject(s): Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s): partnership, purchasing, supplier integration

This article reports the results of an empirical study that probed the adoption of Early Supplier Involvement (ESI). in the product development process. ESI is defined as a form of vertical cooperation where manufacturers involve suppliers at an early stage in the product development innovation process, generally at the level of concept and design. Previous research has shown that Western automobiles manufacturers obtained significant benefits by emulating the ESI practices of their Japanese competitors; the bulk of research knowledge is, in fact, located in this domain. This study focused on a group of assembly-based industries outside the automotive setting to determine if the adoption and benefits of ESI are found in other domains as well. Twenty-five companies in three non-automotive industries participated in the research. A model of ESI adoption was developed and tested, and an ESI index created to determine the degree to which this practice was applied. The results reveal, among other things, that the level of ESI practice is strongly related to a higher number of supplier base initiatives, lower product integration, broader supplier scope and a higher proportion of parts purchased. Significant results were also obtained in comparisons between industry sectors and geographic regions (USA, Western Europe and Japan). We suggest that promising directions for future research include broad-based samples across industrial sectors and industry focused empirical study.

With permission of Elsevier

Volume 26
Issue 7–8
Pages 719–732

Journal Article

Comprendre la confiance: La nécessité d'une nouvelle problématique

Revue Sciences de Gestion 8/9: 33–46
Abstract:
Subject(s): Economics, politics and business environment
Keyword(s): trust, confidence, integrity
Volume 8/9
Pages 33–46

Journal Article

New product development and early supplier involvement (ESI): The drivers of ESI adoption

International Journal of Technology Management 15 (1–2): 49–69
Francis Bidault, Charles Despres, Christina Butler (1998)
Abstract:
Subject(s): Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s): alliances, early supplier involvement, new product development, product innovation
Volume 15
Issue 1–2
Pages 49–69

Journal Article

Early supplier involvement: Leveraging knowhow for better product development

Target 12 (1): 20–27
Francis Bidault, Christina Butler (1996)
Abstract:
Subject(s): Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s): supplier integration, new product development, co-development
Volume 12
Issue 1
Pages 20–27

Journal Article

Technology transactions: Networks over markets

R&D Management 24 (4): 373–386
Francis Bidault, William A. Fischer (1994)
Abstract:
Subject(s): Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s): technology transfer, licensing, technology market

There is a widespread belief in the business community that firms can rely on the market for buying and selling technological opportunities. The argument is: with so much technology development going on in the world, 'there must be somebody somewhere who has the technology we need.' According to this belief, acquiring new technology just boils down to finding the supplier, possibly with the help of a specialized intermediary. Several large firms have indeed developed ambitious mechanisms for acquiring the needed technological know-how as they proceed to make and market a new product. We contend that this concept of the technology transfer process is erroneous, as it conflicts with actual practice. The very high transaction costs entailed leave considerable room for opportunistic behavior and are more likely to occur when the parties do not know each other. An effective way to reduce transaction costs, therefore, is to limit technology transfers to the firm's partners, i.e. organizations with which the firm has already interacted in the past. Our research provides evidence that successful technology transfers typically take place between suppliers and buyers who had business relationships before considering a technology agreement. In addition, we report findings that companies using intermediaries (technological opportunities catalogues, databases, fairs, etc.) have been disappointed in their attempts to find new technologies from unknown sources. Because of the high risk of opportunistic behavior, it is practically impossible to assess the value of a technology without knowing who sells it. Similarly, the technology transfer capabilities of a company are difficult to appraise without prior knowledge through business interaction. To a certain extent, it may be better to buy any technology from a partner that one knows well than to buy a supposedly good technology from a firm with which one has had no experience. To put it bluntly: the identity of the partner may actually matter more than the technology being traded! Consequently, the relevant framework for technology transfer is built on a 'network concept' rather than the 'market concept'. Firms wishing to acquire new technology should turn first to their network of trusted business partners, looking for available technological opportunities instead of trying to buy technology from unrelated organizations.

© 1994 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and British Academy of Management

Volume 24
Issue 4
Pages 373–386

Journal Article

Innovating through alliances: Expectations and limitations

R&D Management 24 (1): 33–45
Francis Bidault, Thomas Cummings (1994)
Abstract:
Subject(s): Strategy and general management
Keyword(s): alliance, partnership, strategy

In this paper we have analysed the innovation processes occurring in several cross-industry technology partnerships in order to suggest some key managerial issues pertaining to the effectiveness of these increasingly popular initiatives. Our general proposition, based on an extensive literature review and clinical research, is that the managerial hurdles in partnerships frequently offset, and in some cases eliminate, the expected innovation advantages. We submit that there is a fundamental tension between the dynamics of innovation and the logic of partnering. The extent of the tension, however, depends on the nature of the innovation project and on the characteristics of the partnership. Thus we recommend that managers involved in the formation of joint-R&D agreements should carry out an innovation-partnering assessment to design an appropriate management structure that would minimise the 'tension'. Lastly, we suggest some ingredients for carrying out such an assessment, and directions for further research. Alliances seem to be today's answer to most management challenges. As recent surveys show, companies all over the world are forming partnerships to alleviate difficulties met in nearly every business activity â€Â"design, manufacturing, distribution, service߉ (e.g. Hergert & Morris, 1987; Urban, 1989), The popularity of such strategic initiatives in the 1980's has led to a dramatic increase in the number as well as in the forms of alliances (Hagedoorn and Schakenraad, 1990).

© 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and British Academy of Management

Volume 24
Issue 1
Pages 33–45