Martin Schweinsberg

Articles, Academic articles

Journal Article
Forthcoming

Too precise to pursue: How precise first offers create barriers-to-entry in negotiations and markets

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 148 (September): 87–100
Alice J. Lee, David D. Loschelder, Martin Schweinsberg, Malia F. Mason, Adam D. Galinsky
Abstract:
Subject(s): Human resources management/organizational behavior
Keyword(s): Anchor precision, negotiation entry, barriers-to-entry, first offers, social attribution, decision making

Precise first offers strongly anchor negotiation outcomes. This precision advantage has been previously documented only when the parties were already engaged in a negotiation. We introduce the concept of negotiation entry, i.e., the decision to enter a negotiation with a particular party. We predict that precise prices create barriers-to-entry, reducing a counterpart’s likelihood of entering a negotiation. Six studies (N=1,580) and one archival analysis of real estate sector data (N=11,214) support our barrier-to-entry prediction: Potential negotiators were less likely to enter a negotiation with precise versus round first offers. Using both statistical mediation and experimental-causal-chain analyses, we establish that perceptions of offer maker inflexibility underlie the precision barrier. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this inflexibility mechanism of precision is distinct from the mechanism (being offended) that creates barriers-to-entry for extreme first offers. The discussion theoretically integrates research on first-offer precision and extremity by offering the Precision-Extremity Model of First Offers.

With permission of Elsevier

Volume 148
Issue September
Pages 87–100

Journal Article
New

Imaginary alternatives: The effects of mental simulation on powerless negotiators

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 115 (1): 96–117
Michael Schaerer, Martin Schweinsberg, Roderick I. Swaab (2018)
Abstract:
Subject(s): Human resources management/organizational behavior
Keyword(s): Negotiation, alternatives, power, first offer, mental simulation

The present research demonstrates that negotiators can act powerfully without having power. Researchers and practitioners advise people to obtain strong alternatives prior to negotiating to enhance their power. However, alternatives are not always readily available, often forcing negotiators to negotiate without much, or any, power. Building on research suggesting that subjective feelings of power and objective outcomes are disconnected and that mental simulation can increase individuals' aspirations, we hypothesized that the mental imagery of a strong alternative could provide similar psychological benefits to having an actual alternative. Our studies demonstrate that imagining strong alternatives causes individuals to negotiate more ambitiously and provides them with a distributive advantage: negotiators reached more profitable agreements when they either had a strong tendency to think about better alternatives (Study 1) or when they were instructed to mentally simulate an attractive alternative (Studies 3-4). Mediation analyses suggest that mental simulation boosts performance because it increases negotiators' aspirations which translate into more ambitious first offers (Studies 2-4), but only when the simulated alternative is attractive (Study 2b). Our findings further show that mental simulations are only beneficial when there is sufficient room in the negotiation to reach a profitable agreement, but backfire in settings where negotiators' positions are difficult to reconcile (Study 5). An internal meta-analysis of the file-drawer produces effect size estimates free of publication bias and demonstrates the robustness of the effect. Our findings contribute to research on social power, negotiations, and mental simulation.

Copyright © 2018 American Psychological Association.

Reproduced with permission.

Volume 115
Issue 1
Pages 96–117
ISSN 1939-1315 (Online) 0022-3514 (Print)

Journal Article

Infuriating impasses: Angry expressions increase exiting behavior in negotiations

Social Psychological and Personality Science 8 (6): 706–714
Jeremy A. Yip, Martin Schweinsberg (2017)
Abstract:
Subject(s): Human resources management/organizational behavior
Keyword(s): Negotiations, emotion, conflict, selfishness, timing, communication, social norms, impasses, anger

Prior research has focused on the influence of emotional expressions on the value of negotiated outcomes. Across three studies, we demonstrate that people interacting with angry counterparts become more likely to walk away from a negotiation, resulting in an impasse. In Study 1, participants who encountered counterparts expressing anger were more likely to choose an impasse, relative to those with neutral counterparts. In Study 2, building on the emotion-as-social-information model, we found that inferences of selfishness mediate the effect of angry expressions on impasses. In Study 3, we found that timing moderates the relationship between angry expressions and impasses. Furthermore, we demonstrated that perceptions of inappropriateness mediate the interactive effect of timing and angry expressions on impasses. Taken together, our work reveals that expressing anger is risky in negotiations because people infer that angry counterparts are selfish and become more likely to exit negotiations.

With permission of SAGE Publishing

Volume 8
Issue 6
Pages 706–714
ISSN 19485514 (Online) 19485506 (Print)

Journal Article

Replication data collection highlights value in diversity of replication attempts

Scientific Data 4 (170028)
Kurt Andrew DeSoto, Martin Schweinsberg (2017)
Abstract:
Subject(s): Human resources management/organizational behavior
Keyword(s): Crowdsourcing science, replication, reproducibility

Researchers agree that replicability and reproducibility are key aspects of science. A collection of Data Descriptors published in Scientific Data presents data obtained in the process of attempting to replicate previously published research. These new replication data describe published and unpublished projects. The different papers in this collection highlight the many ways that scientific replications can be conducted, and they reveal the benefits and challenges of crucial replication research. The organizers of this collection encourage scientists to reuse the data contained in the collection for their own work, and also believe that these replication examples can serve as educational resources for students, early-career researchers, and experienced scientists alike who are interested in learning more about the process of replication.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License CC-BY.

Volume 4
Issue 170028
ISSN 2052-4463 (Online)

Journal Article

Data from a pre-publication independent replication initiative examining ten moral judgement effects

Scientific Data 3
Warren Tierney, Martin Schweinsberg, Jennifer Jordan, Deanna M. Kennedy, Israr Qureshi, S. Amy Sommer, Nico Thornley et al. (2016)
Abstract:
Subject(s): Human resources management/organizational behavior
Keyword(s): Decision making, ethics, psychology, research management

We present the data from a crowdsourced project seeking to replicate findings in independent laboratories before (rather than after) they are published. In this Pre-Publication Independent Replication (PPIR) initiative, 25 research groups attempted to replicate 10 moral judgment effects from a single laboratory’s research pipeline of unpublished findings. The 10 effects were investigated using online/lab surveys containing psychological manipulations (vignettes) followed by questionnaires. Results revealed a mix of reliable, unreliable, and culturally moderated findings. Unlike any previous replication project, this dataset includes the data from not only the replications but also from the original studies, creating a unique corpus that researchers can use to better understand reproducibility and irreproducibility in science.

Volume 3
ISSN 2052-4463 (Online)

Journal Article

The pipeline project: Pre-publication independent replications of a single laboratory's research pipeline

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 66 (5): 55–67
Martin Schweinsberg, Nikhil Madan, Michelangelo Vianello, Amy S. Sommer, Jennifer Jordan, Warren Tierney, Eli Awtrey et al. (2016)
Abstract:
Subject(s): Human resources management/organizational behavior
Keyword(s): Crowdsourcing science, replication, reproducibility, research transparency, methodology, meta-science

This crowdsourced project introduces a collaborative approach to improving the reproducibility of scientific research, in which findings are replicated in qualified independent laboratories before (rather than after) they are published. Our goal is to establish a non-adversarial replication process with highly informative final results. To illustrate the Pre-Publication Independent Replication (PPIR) approach, 25 research groups conducted replications of all ten moral judgment effects which the last author and his collaborators had “in the pipeline” as of August 2014. Six findings replicated according to all replication criteria, one finding replicated but with a significantly smaller effect size than the original, one finding replicated consistently in the original culture but not outside of it, and two findings failed to find support. In total, 40% of the original findings failed at least one major replication criterion. Potential ways to implement and incentivize pre-publication independent replication on a large scale are discussed.

With permission of Elsevier

Volume 66
Issue 5
Pages 55–67

Journal Article

Starting high and ending with nothing: The role of anchors and power in negotiations

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 48 (1): 226–231
Martin Schweinsberg, Gillian Ku, Cynthia S. Wang, Madan M Pillutla (2012)
Abstract:
Subject(s): Human resources management/organizational behavior
Keyword(s): Anchor, first offer, impasse, negotiation
Volume 48
Issue 1
Pages 226–231

Articles, Practitioner articles

Journal Article

Research: When you don't have an alternative in a negotiation, try imagining one

Harvard Business Review
Michael Schaerer, Martin Schweinsberg, Roderick I. Swaab (2018)
Abstract:
Subject(s): Human resources management/organizational behavior
Keyword(s): Negotiation, alternatives, social power, first offer, mental simulation
ISSN 0017-8012 (Print)

Other publications

Online

What marketers can learn from the art and science of negotiation

Campaign
Abstract:
Subject(s): Human resources management/organizational behavior