This is a photo of Prof. Jayaraman teaching.

Rajshri Jayaraman

Journal Article

Anatomy of a contract change

American Economic Review 106(2): 316–358
Published as NBER Working Paper No. 19849 under the title Productivity response to a contract change, 2016 KfW Research Prize for Excellence
Abstract:
Subject(s): Economics, politics and business environment
Keyword(s): Labor contracts, incentives, behavioral economics, plantations
JEL Code(s): D82, D86, J33, J41, J43, O13, Q12

We study a contract change for tea pluckers on an Indian plantation, with a higher government-stipulated baseline wage. Incentive piece rates were lowered or kept unchanged. Yet, in the following month, output increased by 20 to 80 percent. This response contradicts the standard model and several variants, is only partly explicable by greater supervision, and appears to be "behavioral." But in subsequent months, the increase is comprehensively reversed. Though not an unequivocal indictment of "behavioral" models, these findings suggest that nonstandard responses may be ephemeral, and should ideally be tracked over an extended period of time.

Copyright © 2016 by the American Economic Association.

Volume 106
Issue 2
Pages 316–358

Journal Article

The impact of school lunches on primary school enrollment: Evidence from India's midday meal scheme

Scandinavian Journal of Economics 117(4): 1176–1203
Abstract:
Subject(s): Economics, politics and business environment
Keyword(s): Primary school enrollment, school lunches, natural experiment, ITT

At the end of 2001, the Indian Supreme Court issued a directive ordering states to institute school lunches – known locally as "midday meals" – in government primary schools. This paper provides a large-scale assessment of the enrollment effects of India's midday meal scheme, which offers warm lunches, free of cost, to 120 million primary school children across India and is the largest school feeding program in the world. To isolate the causal effect of the policy, we make use of staggered implementation across Indian states in government but not private schools. Using a panel data set of almost 500,000 schools observed annually from 2002 to 2004, we find that midday meals result in substantial increases in primary school enrollment, driven by early primary school responses to the program. Our results are robust to a wide range of specification tests.

© The editors of The Scandinavian Journal of Economics 2015

Volume 117
Issue 4
Pages 1176–1203

Journal Article

Linear social interactions models

Journal of Political Economy 123(2): 444–496
Lawrence E. Blume, William A. Brock, Steven N. Durlauf, Rajshri Jayaraman (2015)
Abstract:
Subject(s): Economics, politics and business environment
Keyword(s): Social interactions, identification, incomplete information games
JEL Code(s): C21, C23, C31, C35, C72, Z13

This paper provides a systematic analysis of identification in linear social interactions models. This is both a theoretical and an econometric exercise as the analysis is linked to a rigorously delineated model of interdependent decisions. We develop an incomplete information game that describes individual choices in the presence of social interactions. The equilibrium strategy profiles are linear. Standard models in the empirical social interactions literature are shown to be exact or approximate special cases of our general framework, which in turn provides a basis for understanding the microeconomic foundations of those models. We consider identification of both endogenous (peer) and contextual social effects under alternative assumptions on a priori information about network structure available to an analyst, and contrast the informational content of individual-level and aggregated data. Finally, we discuss potential ramifications for identification of endogenous group selection and differences between the information sets of analysts and agents.

With permission of the University of Chicago Press

Volume 123
Issue 2
Pages 444–496

Journal Article

Engendered access or engendered care? Evidence from a major Indian hospital

Economic and Political Weekly 49(25): 47–53
Rajshri Jayaraman, Debraj Ray, Shing-Yi Wang (2014)
Abstract:
Subject(s): Economics, politics and business environment, Health and environment
Volume 49
Issue 25
Pages 47–53

Journal Article

Do higher costs spur process innovations and managerial incentives? Evidence from a natural experiment

Journal of Economics and Management Strategy 22(3): 529–550
Benoit Dostie, Rajshri Jayaraman (2013)
Abstract:
Subject(s): Economics, politics and business environment
Keyword(s): Process innovation, managerial incentives, x-efficiency
JEL Code(s): D22, O31, J33

This paper asks whether firms respond to cost shocks by introducing process innovations and increasing the use of managerial incentives. Using a large panel data set of workplaces in Canada, our identification strategy relies on exogenous variation in costs arising from increased border security along the 49th parallel fol- lowing 9/11. Our longitudinal difference-in-differences estimates indicate that firms responded to the cost shock by introducing new or improved processes, but did not change their use of managerial incentives. These results suggest that the threat of bankruptcy may provide impetus for improving efficiency.

© 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Volume 22
Issue 3
Pages 529–550

Journal Article

Organizational redesign, information technologies and workplace productivity

B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy 12(1): 1–39
Benoit Dostie, Rajshri Jayaraman (2012)
Abstract:
Subject(s): Economics, politics and business environment
Keyword(s): productivity, information technologies, organizational practices, panel data
JEL Code(s): O33, D22, D24
Volume 12
Issue 1
Pages 1–39

Journal Article

What (if any) are the returns to computer use?

Applied Economics 41(27): 1–10
Benoit Dostie, Rajshri Jayaraman, Mathieu Trépanier (2009)
Abstract:
Subject(s): Economics, politics and business environment
Keyword(s): computers, productivity
Volume 41
Issue 27
Pages 1–10

Journal Article

Influence of polymorphism within the Heme oxygenase-I promoter on overall survival and transplantation-related mortality after allogeneic stem cell transplantation

Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation 14(10): 1180–1189
Armin Gerbitz, Patrick Hillemanns, Christoph Schmid, Andrea Wilke, Rajshri Jayaraman, Hans-Jochem Kolb, Gunther Eissner et al. (2008)
Abstract:
Subject(s): Health and environment
Keyword(s): Heme oxygenase, Graft-versus-host disease, polymorphism, Stem cell transplantation, risk factor

Aside from major and minor histocompatibility antigens, genetic polymorphisms of various donor and host genes have been found to be risk factors for graft-versus-host disease and transplantation-related mortality (TRM). The heme oxygenase I (HO-I) protein has been implicated in regulating inflammatory response and has been described as a ßÂ"ßÂ"protective gene'' in solid organ transplantation. In humans, the promoter region displays length polymorphism due to a variable number of GT repeats. Individuals exhibiting 29 or fewer GT repeats express higher levels of HO-I on cellular stress compared with individuals with 30 or more GT repeats. We retrospectively analyzed length polymorphisms of 92 donor-host pairs undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Our findings demonstrate that mainly donor polymorphism leading to high expression of HO-1 (\30 GT repeats) on stress signals is associated with reduced overall survival, and that TRM is significantly increased in this group. This reduction in survival was most prominent when unrelated donors were used. Polymorphisms of the recipient HO-1 genes did not influence posttransplantation outcomes. We conclude that HO-1 polymorphism represents a new genetic risk factor for TRM and overall survival.

With permission of Elsevier

Volume 14
Issue 10
Pages 1180–1189

Journal Article

Determinants of school enrollment in Indian villages

Economic Development and Cultural Change 54(2): 405–421
Benoit Dostie, Rajshri Jayaraman (2006)
Abstract:
Subject(s): Economics, politics and business environment
Keyword(s): primary school enrollment, india, education

Attaining universal basic education remains an elusive goal in many developing countries. This article examines the determinants of school enrollment among children in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, two large north Indian states. In addition to individual‐ and household‐level influences, we consider the role of village‐level contextual effects on the school enrollment decision. Our results suggest that enrollment is increasing in parental education as well as wealth and that village caste composition and aggregate deprivation also influence individual enrollment decisions.

With permission of the University of Chicago Press

Volume 54
Issue 2
Pages 405–421

Journal Article

The signalling role of municipal currencies in local development

Economica 72(288): 597–613
Rajshri Jayaraman, Mandar Oak (2005)
Abstract:
Subject(s): Economics, politics and business environment
Keyword(s): signalling, local currency, information asymmetry
JEL Code(s): D8, O12, E4

The last decade has seen the burgeoning of several hundred local community currency institutions in cities across the world. Although residents of these communities claim that local currency promotes local development, how it does so has hitherto been unexplored. We argue that the introduction of a municipal currency may serve as a signal of demand for local goods. Where demand uncertainty deters firms from investing in more productive technologies, such a signal improves the chances that technology choice will be optimal. The introduction of a local currency therefore always improves ex ante efficiency and may lead to ex post efficiency, with strictly higher levels of productivity and welfare.

© The London School of Economics and Political Science 2005

Volume 72
Issue 288
Pages 597–613

Journal Article

Small-scale industry, environmental regulation, and poverty: The case of Brazil

World Bank Economic Review 18(3): 443–464
Rajshri Jayaraman, Peter F. Lanjouw (2004)
Abstract:
Subject(s): Economics, politics and business environment
Keyword(s): SMEs, enviroment, poverty
Volume 18
Issue 3
Pages 443–464

Journal Article

The evolution of poverty and inequality in Indian villages

World Bank Research Observer 14(1): 1–30
Rajshri Jayaraman, Peter F. Lanjouw (1999)
Abstract:
Subject(s): Economics, politics and business environment
Keyword(s): village studies, India
Volume 14
Issue 1
Pages 1–30